Pallet Definitions

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

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Annular nail - Pallet nail with circular-ring threads along its body

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Banding Notch - See Strap Slot


Bin - Four-sided structure upon which boards are mounted to a pallet base with or without a cover. Often referred to as a box or container bin pallet


Block -Rectangular, square or cylindrical deck spacer, often identified by its location within the pallet as corner block, end block, edge block, inner block, center or middle blocks


Block Pallet - A pallet type featuring blocks between the pallet decks or beneath the top deck


Butted Deck board - An inner deck board tightly installed against an adjoining lead deck board during assembly


Bottom Deck - Assembly of deck boards comprising the lower, load bearing surface of the pallet

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CAD - Computer-aided-design software that allows the design of the "right" pallet at the best value; see Pallet Design System© (PDS©)


Captive Pallet - A pallet intended for use within the confines of a single facility, system or ownership; not intended to be exchanged


Chamfered Deck boards – Deck boards with edges of one or two faces beveled, either along the full or specified length of board or between the stringers of blocks, allowing easier entry of pallet jack wheels


Closed distribution system - Shipping system restricted to moving goods between specified plants and facilities


Collar - Collapsible wooden container or bin which transforms a pallet into a box


Cost-Pass-Through - A cost-share system where the partial cost of a pallet is passed-through from the purchaser to the receiver of the pallet


Cost-Per-Trip - Average cost of pallet use for a single one-way trip

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Deck - One or more boards or panels comprising the top or bottom surface of the pallet


Deck Mat - Assembly of deck boards and stringer boards, forming the deck of a block pallet


Deck board - Element or component of a pallet deck, oriented perpendicular to the stringer or stringer board


Deck board Spacing - Distance between adjacent deck boards


Deck board Span - Distance between deck board supports (stringers, stringer boards or blocks)


Deflection - The amount of deformation or bending in a pallet or pallet component under load


Dimensions - See Pallet Dimensions


Double-Face Pallet - A pallet with top and bottom decks


Double-Wing Pallet - A pallet with top and bottom deck boards extending beyond the edges of the stringers or stringer boards


Drive Screw Nail - Helically (continuous spiral) threaded pallet nail

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Economic Life - Output from PDS© program which identifies the number of trips the pallet will make, provided it is properly repaired, which maximizes a return on investment


Exchange Pallet - A pallet intended for use among a designated group of shippers and receivers where ownership of the pallet is transferred with the ownership of the unit load; common pool pallet


Expendable Pallet - A pallet intended for a series of handlings during a single trip from shipper to receiver; it is then disposed; see Shipping Pallet

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Fastener - A mechanical device for joining pallet components such as nails, staples, bolts or screws


Fastener Shear Index - Relative measure of shear resistance of the pallet fastener


Flush Pallet - A pallet with deck boards flush with the stringers, stringer-boards or blocks along the sides of the pallet


Fork Entry - Opening between decks, beneath the top deck or beneath the stringer notch to admit forks


Four-Way Block Pallet - A pallet with openings at both pallet ends and along pallet sides sufficient to admit hand-pallet jacks; full four-way entry pallet


Free Span - The distance between supports in a warehouse rack

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Hand (Wheel) Jack Opening - Space provided in the bottom deck to allow pallet jack wheels to bear on the floor


Handling - A single pick-up, movement and set-down of a loaded or empty pallet


Hardened-Steel Nail - Heat-treated and tempered steel pallet nail with a MIBANT angle between 8 and 28 degrees


Hardwood - Wood from broad-leaved species of trees (not necessarily hard or dense)


Helical Nail - Helically (continuous spiral) threaded pallet nail, see also Drive Screw Nail

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Inner Deck board - Any deck board located between the end deck boards

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Joint - Intersection and connection of components, often identified by location within the pallet as the end joint, center joint and corner joint

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L

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Length - Refers to the stringer or stringer board (in block pallets) length; also refers to the first dimension given to describe a pallet i.e., 48" x 40", where 48" is the pallet stringer/stringer board length


Load Bearing Surface - Actual area of material in contact with and supporting a unit load

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MIBANT angle - The bend angle in a fastener shank when subjected to a MIBANT test


MIBANT Test - (Morgan Impact Bend Angle Nail Tester) - Standard impact nail tester used in the pallet and lumber industry as an indication of impact bend resistance of nails or staples

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Nail- Fastener made from endless wire by cutting a point and forming a head at the shank end opposite the point


NATIONAL WOODEN PALLET AND CONTAINER ASSOCIATION - A national association with the goal of promoting the design, manufacture, distribution, recycling, and sale of pallets, containers, and reels


Non-Reversible Pallet - A pallet with bottom deck board configuration different from top deck


Notch - Cutout in lower portion of the stringer to allow entry for the fork tine, usually 9" in length, 1 1/2" in depth


Notched Stringer - A stringer with two notches spaced for fork-tine entry, (partial four-way entry)

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Opening Height - The vertical distance measured between decks, from the floor to the underside of the top deck, or from the floor to the top of the stringer notch


Overall Height- The vertical distance measured from the floor to the top side of the top deck


Overhang - The distance the deck extends from the outer edge of the stringer or stringer board; wing; lip; distance the unit load extends beyond the deck

P

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Pallet - A portable, horizontal, rigid platform used as a base for assembling, storing, stacking, handling and transporting goods as a unit load, often equipped with a superstructure


PALLET DESIGN SYSTEM© - (PDS©) - Reliability-based computer-aided design (CAD) program, for determining the safe load carrying capacity, performance, life and economy of wooden pallets


Pallet Dimensions - When specifying pallet size, the stringer or stringer board (block pallet) length is always expressed first; for example, a 48" x 40" pallet has a 48" stringer or stringer board and 40" deck boards


Pallet Jack - Hand-propelled wheeled platform, equipped with a lifting device for moving palletized unit loads


Pallet Life - The period during which the pallet remains useful, expressed in units of time or in the number of one-way trips


Panel Deck Pallet - Pallet constructed with composite or structural panel top deck


Partial Four-Way Stringer Pallet - A pallet with notched stringers


Post Pallet - A pallet with posts or blocks between each deck or beneath the top deck; see block pallet

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Quality - Consistent performance of a uniform product meeting the customer's needs for economy and function

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Racked Across Deck boards - The PDS© program defines the maximum load capacity and deflection of a pallet where the rack frame supports the pallet only at the ends of the deck boards


Racked Across Stringers - Output from the PDS© program describing the maximum load carrying capacity and deflection of a pallet where the rack frame supports the pallet only at the ends of the stringers or stringer boards


Repair - To restore to a reusable state


Recycling - A pallet, container or reel  that is reused after having been, abandoned or used, recovered and restored


Rental Pallet - A pallet owned by a party other than the pallet user


Returnable/Reusable Pallet- A pallet designed for multiple trips


Reversible Pallet - A pallet featuring identical top and bottom decks

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Shipping Pallet - Single-trip one-way pallets sent from shipper to receiver; it is then disposed of; see Expendable Pallet


Shook - Pallet parts cut to individual sizes which can be assembled into pallets


Shook Grade - The classification of the quality of pallet parts relative to performance characteristics based on size and distribution of defects, independent of wood species


Single-Wing Pallet - A pallet with top deck boards that extend past the edge of stringers or stringer boards with the bottom deck boards flush (if present)


Skid - A pallet with no bottom deck


Slave Pallet - Pallet, platform or single, thick panel used as a support base for a palletized load in rack-storage facilities or production systems

Soft Nail - Pallet nail designed with a MIBANT angle of at least 47 degrees


Softwood - Wood from coniferous or needle-bearing trees (not necessarily soft or low density)


Solid Deck Pallet - A pallet built with no space between each deck board


Span - The distance between stringer or block supports


Stevedore Pallet - A pallet designed specifically for use on seaport shipping docks. These pallets are often heavy-duty and of double-wing construction


Stiff-Stock Steel Nail - A pallet nail created with medium-high carbon steel without heat treatment and tempering with MIBANT angle between 29 and 46 degrees


Strap Slot - Cutout along the upper edge of a stringer or the underside of the top deck board designed to help with the tying down a unit load to the pallet deck 


Strapping - Heavy-duty bands used to secure load to pallet


Stringer - Continuous, longitudinal, solid or notched beam-component of the pallet used to support deck components, often located on the outside or center stringer


Stringer board- In block pallets, continuous, solid board member extending for the full length of the pallet perpendicular to deck board members and placed amidst deck boards and blocks

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Take-It-Or-Leave-It Pallet - A pallet furnished with fixed cleats to allow fork truck tines to pass beneath the unit load and remove it from the pallet


Top Cap - Panel placed atop a load to allow for tighter strapping, increased protection and decreased damages


Top-Deck of the Pallet - The construction of the upper, load-carrying surface of a pallet


Trip - Consists of four to six handlings of a pallet


Two-Way Entry Pallet - An un-notched pallet with solid stringers that allow items to enter from either end

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Unit Load - Assembly of goods on a pallet for handling, moving, storing and stacking as a single entity

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Warehouse Pallet - A double-face multiple-trip returnable pallet designed for general warehouse use


Wing - The overhanging portion of a deck board. Also the outside edge of a stringer or stringer board

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